Debra Boyer, PhD, Commercially Sexually Exploited Childrenin Seattle/King County2019 Update
 This number is an estimate based on findings in several studies. M.H. Silbert and A.M. Pines, 1982, "Victimization of street prostitutes,” Victimology, 7: 122-133; D.Kelly Weisberg, 1985, “Children of the Night: A Study of Adolescent Prostitution,” Lexington, Mass, Toronto; Richard J. Estes and Neil Alan Weiner, “The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children,” U. of Penn., 2001. In a small interview-based study of survivors by BEST and OPS, the average age that respondents entered the life was 15 years old.
 According to preliminary test data from a recent project by Seattle Against Slavery in partnership with Demand Abolition, April 2015. This data was further confirmed according in an ongoing study by the Organization of Prostitution Survivors (OPS) and BEST, January 2015 - Present, in which 72% of prostitution survivors who responded said that clients contacted them between 12pm and 5pm to set up meetings. The second study indicated that the top time for clients to contact them was after 5pm. The time of 12pm-5pm is listed as the second peak time.
 According to interview data in an ongoing study by the Organization of Prostitution Survivors (OPS) and BEST, January 2015 - Present.
 Follow up study to Dominique Roe-Sepowitz, et al, “Invisible Offenders: A Study Estimating Online Sex Customers,” Arizona State University. August 2013. Study of Seattle market completed September 2014.
 Seattle information obtained through public information request by BEST, 2014-7; National data received from Cook County Sheriff's Office National Day of Johns Arrests, 2016-2017.
 Study of sex-trafficking related cases prosecuted by the King County Prosecuting Attorney’s Office, BEST, 2008-2012.
 Nicole Brodeur. www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/a-shameful-side-of-the-city/.
 Prior three facts from Melissa Farley, et al, “Prostitution in Five Countries,” Feminism & Psychology 8 (1998): 405-426.
 (2018 Federal Cases) https://www.traffickingmatters.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/2018-Federal-Human-Trafficking-Report-High-Res.pdf
 The Urban Institute, https://www.urban.org/research/publication/understanding-organization-operation-and-victimization-process-labor-trafficking-united-states/view/full_report, Boston, MA, October 2014.
 These stats come from a 2019 evaluation of our Inhospitable to Human Trafficking training.
 King County Commercial Sexual Exploitation Cases, https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5b71c32bec4eb7c684a77ff4/t/6104439472e43205ebb69ef3/1627669451950/FINAL+WEBSITE+2020+King+County+CSE+Data+7.30+Update+Final.pdf
 Human Trafficking Institute, https://traffickinginstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/2020-Federal-Human-Trafficking-Report-Low-Res.pdf
 Office of Crime Victims Advocacy - 2022 Human Trafficking Data
 Kezban Yagci Sokat, PhD, Understanding the Role of Transportation in Human Traffickingin California